What Fish Are In Africa? The Indian, Southern, and Atlantic marine waters of Africa, along with their numerous lakes and rivers, each represent various fish species they could be proud of. The continent has an abundant supply of freshwater and marine life, with over 3,000 kilometers of coastlines, multiple dams, lakes, ponds, and streams.
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There are 15% of all identified marine coastal animals that are found on the coast of South Africa. The Cape Stumpnose, Plain Squeaker, Freetail Brotula, and Phongolo Suckermouth are among the native fish species they can have in the region. If you’re a passionate adventurer and you’re looking for some of the freshest and savoriest fish that Africa has on their shores, below is a list of some of the widely caught species they can offer.
The Synodontis Zambezensis, commonly known as the Plain Squeaker, is an upside-down catfish species endemic to the Zambezi River system distributed across the rivers of Tanzania, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, and South Africa. This lives in reservoirs of permanent and intermittent rivers and slow-flowing reaches. In riverine environments it is more popular than flood plains, dwelling in ridges or underneath the trees, typically in the upside-down position.
These types of fish may exceed 43cm in length, and its spines are known to be poisonous according to researchers. They feed on organic matter such as plants and detritus, usually seeds, insects or snails as these species are scavengers and very active at night. Throughout their breeding season in the summer, the Plain Squeaker is oviparous and has distinct pairings.
The Freetail Brotula is a small South African fish species that are commonly found in the Bythitidae tribe. These types of fish are one of three related species named in the Bidenichthys genus as they live in the intertidal areas and rocky tide pools, extending around the Cape of Good Hope along the SouthEast Atlantic. They can grow up to 9cm in length and they can swim further at depths ranging from 11m to 30.5m and between 19.831°C and 20.525°C at temperatures.
The Cape Stumpnose is a fish species in the family of Sea Bream. They are native species to South African rivers, found living along the eastern coast of the country. The average length of a Cape Stumpnose ranges up to 15cm, with large ones going up to 40cm. Their skeleton is silvery-white, with a strip of gold extending from head to tail and their dorsal fin has 11 spines. Their head is flat, with 6 to 8 incisors in its jaw.
These types of fish are marine fish with adults living in the ocean and younger species living in the waterways where it is protected in eelgrass beds. The younger species of Cape Stumpnose have cusped teeth that help collect parts from aquatic plants. They primarily feed on eelgrass while the adults have a bivalve and crustacean diet. Cape Stumpnose population is declining and their habitat is prone to depletion in estuaries.
The Chiloglanis Emarginatus, also known as Phongolo Suckermouth, is an upside-down catfish species that live within a large group. These types of fish are native to Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. They can grow up to 6.5cm in length and live in freshwater mostly in Pongola, Komati, Pungwe and the middle and lower rivers of Zambezi.
They don’t call them Suckermouth for nothing, to keep their place in fast-flowing waters, Phongolo Suckermouth uses its mouth as a sucking disc. Their mandibular teeth are used to scrape stones off invertebrates. This ranges from 0.2m up to 0.4m in shallow rocky runs and riffles in large rivers at an altitude of 900m to 1,200m above sea level. They also feed on invertebrates such as mayfly nymphs. These kinds of species are oviparous during mating, with a unique pairing method as they breed during the summer season. The Phongolo Suckermouth in South Africa is threatened by habitat modification, which suffers degradation from the extraction of water, regular flows from dams, and sedimentation which results from agricultural and forestry practices.
Spotted Grunter are commonly found in Cape Head, along the eastern coast of Africa and Madagascar. These types of species feed on sand prawns, worms and crustaceans which they expose to clear the mud by sprinkling a jet of water from their mouths. Spotted Grunter can often be seen shaking the water on shallow rivers with their paws, as they feed with their head down and by scraping their strong jaws together they make a grunting sound in their throats. Grunters can live for 15 years and they can grow up to a length of 80cm and weigh around 10kg.
Their white flesh makes it good food, but the common practice was to bleed the fish well after catching in order to improve its flavor. Their reliance on estuaries makes them vulnerable to overfishing as within South Africa, this fish is listed as a no-sale species. Only recreational fishers with a special permit may catch Spotted Grunters and only authorize to use a daily bag of 5pp/pd and a minimum size limit of 40 cm. However, these fishers are not permitted to sell their captures.
Cape Gurnards are long-lived and endemic fish species that can be found at depths of 10m to 390m on the sandy or silty rivers of Mozambique and Namibia. These types of fish are one of the most widely caught unwanted species in both the inshore and offshore trawl sectors. However, Gurnards appear to be tough to fishing pressure and their population is currently considered to be under-exploited. They can grow from up to 75cm in length, weigh up to 5kg and can live up to 16 years. As a food product, this type of species is of commercial value.
The Cape Gurnard is native to the coasts of South Africa and is also caught commercially, along with being attacked by line-fishermen. This fish is very popular with fishermen as the flesh makes it an excellent food if you can ignore the fish’s ugly appearance.
Galjoen can be found but rarely occurs along the South African coast from Northern Cape to KwaZulu-Natal and Namibian seas. Galjoen eats primarily ascidians such as redbait squirts, small crustaceans, red seaweed, and barnacles. Normally, these species occupy rocky coastlines in the surf region, and Galjoen needs to be able to swim in rough seas and manage scrapes to survive among cliffs. Their tiny mouths, sharp incisors and thick muscular lips help Galjoen lift their predators off the heavy rocks.
Galjoen is a medium-sized fish, with oval-shaped and flat bodies with symmetrical dorsal and anal fins that give them a distinctive “Snapchat logo” appearance, particularly when raising their spines in defense. They can also be able to change their appearance, usually in a dark grayish color. This changing appearance helps them socialize with the rocky coastlines they prefer, but when around the coast, they can change their color to pale bronze and they are also able to display vertical stripes on their body occasionally. Galjoen are known to grow around 7 kg and about half a meter in length but due to fishing pressures, this large size is seldom achieved.
Cymatoceps Nasutus, known as the Black Musselcrackers are endemic slow-growing yet long-lived fish that render them highly vulnerable to pressure from fishing. Black Musselcrackers are found along the coast of Western Cape to KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. These kinds of fish are caught using traditional methods of line fishing, usually hand lines or rod and reel. It is a fairly limited form of fishing with few effects on the marine ecosystem, and a preventive bycatch fishing.
Musselcracker can reach nearly 5 inches in length, and the largest specimen recorded weighed 77lb. These species are most abundant at depths of up to 260ft in the nearshore and offshore reefs. Although they can be found throughout the year, the best option is to catch them during the spring season as Musselcracker prefers to live in dry, clean water, and avoids sandy places. If you’re planning to eat the Black Musselcracker, the best tip is that smaller species taste better than the larger species, but it’s nevertheless an awesome fish that you can taste.
Shad, also known as Elf, Tailor or Bluefish, is one of the most common angling fish in South Africa, being caught each year by more than 300,000 anglers. These species are widely distributed in the warm Asian, Atlantic, and Pacific coastal waters.
Shad fishes can be found along South Africa’s entire coastline, in which some of them prefer deep water sandy areas and others in foamy weather, where the shore has more heavy rocks. They hunt on the ground surface of the water and grow for about 120cm in length and 14kg by weight. The meat offers excellent food but only when it’s freshly caught, so avoid freezing this fish at any cost.
Shad breeds in the warmer waters of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa from spring until mid-summer season. These kinds of fish can reach sexual maturity at the age of one or two when they are about 25 to 30cm long. A large female shad in one season can produce up to 2 million eggs, though most females produce about 1 million eggs in each season. After a couple of days, the eggs will hatch and the pelagic larvae migrate passively inshore from the Agulhas Current back to South-eastern Cape, where they spend their starting year living in large sea bays.
The Bronze Bream can be found along South Africa’s West Coast, right up to the rivers of Mozambique. These types of fish can grow up to a length of 74cm and a weight of 6kg. This fish is in demand in the market because of its meat but unfortunately, this species is not often caught due to its dropping population as Bronze Bream has a slow growth rate. The Bronze Bream can regularly be found up to 25m deep in the rocky reefs. They are vulnerable to exploitation because of their slow growth.
Bronze Bream enjoys feeding in freshwater and rough sea weather particularly when there is a swirling wind from the South West. The best time to try Bronze Bream would be if the weather is bad and other fish have gone off the hook. They like to stick around against ledges in very rocky surroundings and gullies. Sometimes, Bronze Bream eat in the deepest water and occasionally come in and out in just a few feet above water across the tides.
Geelbek, also known as Cape Salmon is a popular fish and served very regularly in coastal seafood restaurants. They can grow up to a length of 130cm and a weight of 25kg. The meat of a Cape Salmon is so tasty and this has contributed to their population falling because of huge demand in fishing.
Cape Salmons are rich in Omega-3 fatty acids. This fish is very healthy and nutritious for our body and we should aim to eat at least 1-2 meals of this kind of fish in a week. Also, there are different fish recipes and ways to cook Cape Salmons, such as boiling, grilling, steaming, baking and frying the fish. You can also serve them with a touch of garlic butter, or in seafood paella, or a curry, whichever you prefer.
Improvements in biodiversity are needed to help preserve these native South African fish species. Better techniques in agriculture and forestry should be encouraged to avoid habitat degradation especially for those species living in the water. This can be done through management arrangements between riparian owners and environmental bodies. Another way to conserve fish species is to impose restrictions on fishing practices and methods. An authorized and responsible way of fishing can have a huge impact not just on the conservation of the fish population but also on the effects of balanced production of fish in the market.